Dr. David Costill
at Ball State University had us budding exercise physiologists learn to use was something called a Haldane Apparatus.
It had been invented in the early 1900's by John Scott Haldane a British scientist looking for ways to determine oxygen levels in underground mines. The spin off uses of the apparatus included many experiments with marathon runners and other athletes , and some of our present theories of training came about from the use of this invention.
Dr. Costill wanted us to appreciate the pioneers who had done the groundbreaking work and had the skill to bend glass and invent tools to meet the challenges of testing their hypotheses. For my master's thesis, the data I collected and the analyis that I did, took almost a year. Now with the advances in biochemistry, biomechanics, and the computer, the same work could be done in a week or two at the most.